Note: This list contains sources on medieval-themed extremism published in academic books and journals within the last 20 years. For earlier studies of medievalism, see our other relevant resources section here. For articles on these issues published in journalistic outlets, see our “in the news” section here. Where practical, we have listed an entire anthology or journal special issue in lieu of individual essays.
Islamophobia and the Crusades
Historical Contexts (primarily pre-1950)
Note: Several of these include discussions of post-1950 Islamophobia/Crusader medievalism, however we have filed them here if their focus is on a broader historical context rather than a more contemporary moment.
Eitan Bar-Yosef, “The Last Crusade? British Propaganda and The Palestine Crusade, 1917-1918,” Journal of Contemporary History 31.1 (January 2001), 87-109.
Judith Bronstein, “Early Zionists and Crusader Castles: Perceptions and Interpretations of Crusader Material Culture, Late Nineteenth and The Early Twentieth Centuries,” Jewish Culture and History 20.4 (2019): 337-58.
Mike Horswell, The Rise and Fall of British Crusader Medievalism, c. 1825-1945, Routledge, 2018.
Mike Horswell and Jonathan Phillips, Perceptions of the Crusades from the Nineteenth to the Twenty-First Century, Routledge, 2018.
Eric Martone, “Treacherous ‘Saracens’ and Integrated Muslims: The Islamic Outlaw in Robin Hood’s Band and the Re-imagining of English Identity, 1800 to the Present,” Miscelánea 40 (2009): 53–76.
James T. Palmer, “The Making of A World Historical Moment: The Battle of Tours (732/3) in The Nineteenth Century,” Postmedieval 10.2 (2019): 206-218.
Jonathan Phillips, “Before the Kaiser: The Memory of Saladin and the Crusades in the Near East from the Fifteenth to the Nineteenth Centuries,” Royal Holloway, University of London, 2013.
Jonathan Phillips, “Part II: Afterlife,” in The Life and Legend of the Sultan Saladin, Yale University Press, 2019: 309–386.
Ryan Szpiech, “Three Ways of Misreading Thomas Jefferson’s Qur’an,” in Whose Middle Ages: Teachable Moments for an Ill-Used Past, Fordham University Press, 2019: 94-103.
Contemporary (primarily 1950-present)
Akil N. Awan and Mike Horswell, eds., The Crusades in the Modern World, Routledge, 2019.
Kathleen Biddick, “Trauma,” in Elizabeth Emery and Richard Utz, eds., Medievalism: Key Critical Terms, D. S. Brewer, 2014: 247-253.
Adam M. Bishop, “#DeusVult,” in Whose Middle Ages: Teachable Moments for an Ill-Used Past, Fordham University Press, 2019: 256-264.
Louise D’Arcens, “The Crusades and Medievalism,” in The Cambridge Companion to The Literature of The Crusades, ed. Anthony Bale, Cambridge University Press, 2019: 248-262.
Fred M. Donner, “Who’s Afraid of Shari’a Law?” in Whose Middle Ages: Teachable Moments for an Ill-Used Past, Fordham University Press, 2019: 58-68.
Andrew B. R. Elliott, Medievalism, Politics, and Mass Media: Appropriating the Middle Ages in the Twenty-First Century, D. S. Brewer, 2017.
Tommaso C. Falconieri, The Militant Middle Ages: A Contemporary Politics between New Barbarians and Modern Crusaders, Brill, 2019.
Nicholas Haydock and E. L. Risden, eds. Hollywood in the Holy Land: Essays on Film Depictions of the Crusades and Christian-Muslim Clashes, McFarland, 2009.
Felix Hinz and Johannes Meyer-Hamme, Controversial Histories – Current Views on the Crusades, Routledge, 2020.
Bruce Holsinger, Neomedievalism, Neoconservatism, and the War on Terror, Prickly Paradigm Press, 2007.
Brian Johnsrud, “The Crusades All Over Again: Obama, ISIS, and Medieval Metaphors after 9/11,” The Year’s Work in Medievalism 31 (2016): 45-55.
Anouar Majid, We Are All Moors: Ending Centuries of Crusades Against Jews and Other Minorities, University of Minnesota Press, 2009.
Stephennie Mulder, “No, People in the Middle East Haven’t Been Fighting Since the Beginning of Time,” in Whose Middle Ages: Teachable Moments for an Ill-Used Past, Fordham University Press, 2019: 127-139.
Meriem Pagès, “Saracens Abroad: Imagining Medieval Muslim Warriors on the Silver Screen,” Essays in Medieval Studies 32 (2016): 5-21.
Nicholas L. Paul, “Modern Intolerance and the Medieval Crusades,” in Albin et al., eds. Whose Middle Ages: Teachable Moments for an Ill-Used Past, Fordham University Press, 2019: 34–43.
Nicholas Paul and Suzanne Yeager, eds., Remembering the Crusades: Myth, Image, and Identity, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012.
Paul B. Sturtevant, The Middle Ages in Popular Imagination: Memory, Film, and Medievalism, Bloomsbury Academic, 2018.
Daniel Wollenberg, “The Battle of Tours and the US Southern Border,” Studies in Medievalism XXIX (2020): 21–30.
Daniel Wollenberg, “The New Knighthood: Terrorism and the Medieval,” postmedieval 5.1 (2014): 21–33.